Silvano Danesi

Marzo 31, 2008

Zimilina Molinello Androla (English)

Archiviato in: Uncategorized — Vate @ 4:01 pm


The Etruscan-Celtic path, the first part of which is presented in this paper, blends harmoniously with the nature trail of Valsaviore (Saviore Valley) put together by the Adamello Park. The path came into being thanks to the joint work of many people, but among them we want to remember firstly those who left us and who were close to us, lovingly since the first steps, sharing the enthusiasm of the first finds.
Let’s remember Donatella Salvetti Danesi, who worked with passion and constance to put the first finds in order, seeking a unifying logic and the literature references, to place them into a context that was identified with an ancient cultural climate. Her work from the stones reached the mind and the heart. Let’s remember general Domenico Scoppio, a man of rare sensitivity, experienced Etruscologist, who knowingly led the researches, supporting us with his culture and his unquestionable insight. Let’s remember Giovan Battista Matti, the guardian of many local legends and traditions. To Lorenzo Cervelli, his long-time friend, just before dying he related of a little bird who visited him and he called “Raì”. “Raì twittered when I arrived, it was happy. More so was I. I entrusted Raì with my thoughts. Raì would fly in the sky and sing. And now, too, he will wait for me singing … I myself am ready to fly … high, forever.
To these friends of ours, who fly high and look upon us, to use a Celtic image from the Sidhe, let’s turn our minds, knowing they are following us from another dimension, step by step, on the… path.

The association “Amici del sentiero etrusco celtico”

Gabriele Rosa writes that the “early travellers who ascended to the the Alps from the south must have been of Ligurian and Iberian lineage, whose ancestors really were the Basque from the Pyrenees, while from the Black Sea came up the Finnish people. Such mixture of Ligurians and Finns in the Alps was met by the Celts, who introduced sheep-farming and simple agriculture and some early cognizance of iron, as well as Umbrians and Etruscans refugees from the great Celtic invasion of the sixth century B.C.
Umbrian and Etruscan traders and labourers had come up along the Po and the Oglio rivers to lake Sebino, and due to the Celtic rush many fled, either to the Appennins or to the Alps, where, mingling with the former inhabitants, but keeping in separate groups, they made up those people that were called Rhaetians.”[1]
“In the Pyrenees – again from Rosa’s writings – the seat of the Basque, are found the names Camu, Camudas, whence the alleged Ligurian origin of the name Camunians.”[2] The Camunians and their history, writes Anati, cover a time span of “eight thousand years, during which the gatherers-hunters of the Stone Age gradually turned into tribes with ever more complex activities and structures, to the point of becoming entities of many characteristics familiar to us. When, after the evolution of four hundred generations, they became part of the rising Roman empire, the Camunians were already a nation, possessing a social-economic structure, and a division of work and classes, which has since characterized European civilization.”[3]
Throughout the millennia, the Camunians interacted and mingled with various peoples, among whom stand out the Celts and the Etruscans.
As is well known from plentiful literature on the subject, Val Camonica is a land filled with evidence of man’s presence and evolution, but the cartography of the findings cannot be said to be completed. Cevo, for example, is a town that does not appear among the sites subjected to research in the latest decades, so it remained out of the maps that show the distribution of rock art and, more generally, of archaeological findings. A few years ago, precisely in 1998, the writer[4] (with his wife, Donatella Salvetti, and Domenico Scoppio and Franca Leonardi) was one of the discoverers of some important finds that may put the Cevo area, from the Androla hill and a vast territory from the Androla area to the Molinello site, on a par with great cult sites and astronomic observatories. Over the years the research has gone on. In the meantime the group “Amici del sentiero etrusco celtico” (Friends of the Etruscan-Celtic path) has formed with the aim of deepening and publicizing the researches.
Thanks to the unfaltering commitment of the “Amici del sentiero etrusco celtico” and in particular of Lorenzo Cervelli, new finds have emerged and we publish them here, fully aware that what is written here is provisional, as the research is ongoing and the interpretation of the finds is in progress.
Cevo, whose inhabitants dub themselves “Barolcc” (People of the high fields or of the summits[5]) is, as the name indicates (keb = height[6]), a town at high elevation, that is in a position overlooking Val Camonica. To the geographic position add the abundance of water, an excellent exposure to the sun during the whole day, the presence of fertile grounds, and copper and iron mines. All of these factors naturally make for a perfect area for human settlement. And so it was, from ancient-most times, whence we are now getting important archaeological, historical and cultural evidence.
In this first book, edited by the “Amici del sentiero etrusco celtico” we give an account of some findings that on the whole point to the presence of a vast settled area starting from the Neolithic and continuing in successive periods, with Celtic and Etruscan marks. In particular we identified a path that links, not only physically, the north-west section of Androla (where an engraving was found representing Lug in the most archaic form of Carnos) to the Molinello area to the east, where a megalithic complex has been discovered. [see MAP]

Lug and the Cult of the Bull
Of great interest is a graffito found north-west of the Androla hill, representing the god Lug in its archaic form of Cranos or Carnos, associated to the bull.
The horned symbols (horns of cows, deer, goats) appear in the dolmenic world in Britain from the fourth millennium B.C. Such signs – Jean Prieur[7] writes about them – are found plentifully in the form of rock engravings in the Alpine sites of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, in particular in the Valley of Marvels around Mt. Bego (Maritime Alps, French slope) in which the bull prevails, and in Val Camonica (Brescia) where the deer-like figures are numerous”.
About this Myriam Philibert writes (“Les Mytes préceltiques”, ed. Rocher): “The deer and the bull in the Palaeolithic appear to be sacred animals. After the post-glacial heating, they keep their mythical value … At the same time, the cows split into two species: a small-sized ox, with short horns, which gets domesticated, and the urus, much bigger, that remains wild and gets hunted. On wall paintings the animal appears with big, lyre-shaped horns. In a leap of schematic design, the horns alone may represent it. Many associations are known to exist, with the Moon, the snake, the Earth, the staff of the Goddess, or the weaving lines of water and the boat. And now the famous root KRN appears, which we find in Carnac and which comes from KR? The root KR or KL seems to precede the Indo European and means “stone”. The final N suggests an idea of elevation.”
Many are the examples of terms deriving from the root Kr or Kl or both with the final N. Many also the gods. Among them, “Carnos (or Cranos) equates – Myriam Philibert writes – the god of the herds. On Cypriot bronzes he appears with his forehead bedecked by bull’s horns. Subsequently he will turn into Apollo.” In the Carnac region we find Corneille. “Carnos or Corneille – Myriam Philibert maintains – are pastoral gods with their staff. We like to imagine the former as a good-looking lover of Mother Earth. The western Neolithic cultures, Cretan and Minoan, value cows as peers of Mother Earth and also as lunar epiphany”. “At times – Myriam Philibert writes again – this horned god has a feminine polarity, whenever it appears in the form of a vase-like pair of open horns, and is opposed to the dagger: the masculine inheritor, on the stylistic level, of the arrow. Then the horned god evidently represents the third function, linked to nourishment, femininity and the earth. It is the protector of farmers and brings to mind the Grecian Cranos, god of the herds, before acquiring a solar character”. With the arrival of the Indo Europeans and of patriarchal society, the god-bull, more or less androgynous, fades out of the scene.”
Thus, we are facing the cult of the bull until, with the arising solar cults and the beginning of the era of Aries, the god-deer takes its place. “Carnos-Bull stands as a peer of the Mother Goddess, in her role of goddess of sexuality and fertility, as in the Palaeolithic. Then he represents a certain image of immortality.
… The deer, like the sun, stands for periodic renewal, or the cycles of life, death, rebirth, in the vegetative, animal, human or divine sphere.”
The deer antlers, as Jean Prieur[8] remarks, changing with every seasonal cycle, are a symbol of rebirth.
Finally, the Kernunnos. After the Neolithic Bull and the deer of the Bronze Age, in the age of the Pisces we find Kernunnos, with a most significant version appearing in Val Camonica, with a torques (“the mark of power and the numinous at once”, and the act of lifting it is “a sacred gesture”[9]) in the right hand and a ram-headed snake (“symbol of reproductive fertility”[10]) in the left hand.
From the possible presence of the cult of the bull at Cevo, Lorenzo Cervelli reports a tale, according to which the local population worshipped a “golden ox” (over the centuries there has been a symbolic overlap between the bull and the Sinaic idol) that the people coming from the valley below (the Christians) wanted to destroy. For this reason the “golden ox” was hidden on the mountain (today named Dorino) and was entrusted to some guardians (the ancient religion has fled to the mountains). Still according to legend, when from the valleys came the people who set everything on fire, the “golden ox” was buried (the ancient religion is now kept underground) and its custodians went away along a route now marked by many crosses (obviously a form of exorcism of the previous cults).
The cult of the bull is now little known. In the Celtic world a white bull was slaughtered under particular circumstances and its meat was cooked in a cauldron. That meat was used to nourish a druid, who received a dream that night with useful information for the tribe (the election of a king, the outcome of a battle, the fate of a clan, etc.).
In the “Book of Ulster” a tale is handed down from at least the 8th century, where Conn, to break a geis that binds him to a woman in the afterlife, seeks a child born of a guilt-less couple. In the moment when the sacrifice is going to be accomplished, “a woman comes with a cow. The woman says: “Here is what you must do: kill the cow and blend its blood with the soil of Ireland, in front of Tara’s doors… When the cow will be dead, the two stomachs must be opened. Inside two birds are found, one with a lone paw, the other with twelve paws”.
We are witnessing a sacrifice with a substitute victim, but in relation with a bull cult of which we know nothing. Is it the famous bull of the three cranes (the crane, suggests Jean Prieur[11], is a symbol of wisdom and supervision) depicted in the Gallo-Roman statuary art? Whatever the case, the cow gets killed and the flying birds fight; the bird with the lone paw prevails”.[12]
Hadingham[13] quotes Norman Lokyer’s theory, according to which in 2002 B.C. existed a “Cult of May”, linked to the first of May, thus to Aldebaran, that was suppressed around 1600 B.C. by worshippers of the solstice, or of the Sun, coming from Egypt or Greece.
The “Cult of May” people venerated the sorb and the blackthorn prune, while the worshippers of the sun the mistletoe. The “Cult of May” gives origin to a calendar that divides the year into eight parts: the solstices and equinoxes, the first of May, the first of November, the first of August and the first of February. This brings to mind Aldebaran (Bull) and Antares (Scorpio): the one opposing the other in the zodiac.
But who is Lug? It is the Celtic Apollo-Mercury, and its origin, as Jean Markale points out, dates back to the hyperborean myth, that is to that “mythical country of the Hyperboreans, within which perhaps resides the memory of the builders of the megaliths” that are found “in Celtic mythology in the aspect of the underground race of the Tuatha Dé Danann[14] (the people of the goddess Dana), the first to settle in Ireland.
Interesting in this respect is Jean Markale’s remark about Cûchulainn (Setanta), the son of Lug and Dechtaire, the sister of king Conchobar: “His physical strength and his courage are linked symbolically to the bull. After all, the name Tarani (a Celtic god) is juxtaposed to the name tarvos (bull). … Here is a confused mingle of totemic memories and relics of an ancient religion of the bull”.
The finding of the horned god below Androla represents, then, a very important element for the study of the Cevo area.

The Androla Hill
The Androla hill appears from many points of view as a likely cult site and a vantage astronomic point.
The evidence supporting such hypothesis is manifold, starting with the geographic location. The hill is in fact in such a position as to allow a person standing on its summit to dominate the valley and have a view of 360° around all the surrounding mountains.
This aspect makes for a natural viewpoint both for defensive purposes and for astronomic uses (star, moon, solar observations). The early research pointed this way in the attempt to identify revealing signs of accomplishments related to the measuring of time, seasonal changes, and the movements of the heavens.
The existence of likely relics of boulders arranged in circular form is gathered by the aerial photograph of the hill, and is further confirmed by an initial prospect of the area around the little church that rises on top of the Androla hill.
On the summit a stone was visible (now removed due to the digs for the positioning of a huge cross) that was perfectly aligned to the south and east-west. The stone was triangular (tetrahedral).
The selfsame church located on the summit is an indirect testimony of the former use of the Androla hill as an observatory. The ancient-most art of the edifice is in fact a square-base building, with four openings facing the four cardinal points.
The little church further introduces to the ancient cults of the Androla. The first part of the building was in fact built where the local beliefs indicate the witches’ gathering place.
D.A. Morandini writes about this: “According to an old-time tradition, under the Androla chapel existed some copper pits, called “ramine”. The Androla chapel is possibly the best viewpoint of the entire Val Camonica. Once the copper mines were exhausted and abandoned, deep and scary tunnels remained untouched. Well, those folks imagined the existence of a snake with a golden ring, that no one ever dared approach because its stare was thwarting. In addition, witches were said to inhabit those tunnels. These fantastic, fearsome creatures came out of their underground dwellings during the raging storms, and under hailing rains they performed eerie round dances on the Androla meadows”.[15]
Copper pits and dancing witches during the “raging storms” may be connected, insofar as still today witnesses refer that the Androla hill is often stricken by abundant lightning. The fact that the hill attracts thunderbolts (the dancing witches?) is evidently related to the presence of quarries or mines of metal bearing minerals.
As for the presence of stone circles from time immemorial all over the world, Colin Wilson refers the opinion of an archaeologist, Lethbrdge, who maintains that “the great aim was the accomplishment of magic, which took place during the witches’ rituals, and their way to achieve it was simply the trick of provoking strong communal excitement. The stone circles on our hills and the frenzied dances of the witches had this large purpose. And so it was worldwide in an ancient past. Magic power was generated by those dances and – so it was believed – it was contained and directed to its target by the stone circles themselves, arranged so as to keep the power in control and to avoid dispersion all around the country”.[16]
The name Androla may derive from antrum, pit, grotto or cave. The same derivation seems to apply also to Andrista, the town that lies below Androla, reachable from the hill by a steep trail that borders the pits or copper mines, supposedly inhabited by the witches.
Andrista = Antrum istum = this pit
Androla = Antrum illum = that pit.
The witches, according to tradition, kept the snake with the golden ring inside the Androla caves. The snake is an element of great importance for the study of local traditions and for the identification of possible ancient cults. The snake is an animal related to the earth and, consequently, to the Mother Goddess. “Penetrating the depths of the earth, the snake seizes its secrets and becomes the bearer of science and wisdom”.[17]
At Andrista the tradition of the Basilisk is still alive. Angelo Moreschi (writing for “Giornale di Brescia”) describing the rite that takes place at Andrista on January 5th, speaks of the “Badilisc” as a hairy snake sporting a big head, two huge eyes and a gigantic mouth. From such mouth exit the most important facts of the year, after a procession that takes the “monster” around the streets of the town. The whole thing (the “talk of the Badilisc”) is offered to public mockery. The Badilisc is described as a snake endowed with bovine horns and a goatskin head, born out of an egg laid by an old cock and bred by a poisonous toad. In some representations the basilisk has a cock’s head and a snake’s tail.
It is worth remembering that Kernunnos is represented with deer antlers, holding a ram-headed snake[18] and a torques (golden ring?).
The figure of the cold-headed snake, as Prieur remarks, is widespread in Gallic regions and represents “at once the strength and the fecundity of the ram, as well as the cyclical renewal of life, symbolized by the moults of the snake”.[19]
The tradition of the snake with a golden ring is linked to the snake of the stone, that was spotted in the vicinity of the Antigola spring. According to legend, the snake of the stone is the one with a brilliant stone in its mouth.
In this regard it is worth remembering that among the people of the French and Swiss Alps there are stories of flying snakes or dragons carrying a stone in the face. At night they fly to the mountain tops and in the day they take shelter in natural caves. Following Celtic traditions, the flying serpents grew wings and as they got old they turned into dragons. Some of the winged dragons had a lion’s body.[20]
Interesting for geographic proximity and common Alpine context is the legend of the serpent (dragon) of the Red Horn at Zogno, in Val Brembana, whom the elderly say they still see flying among the mountain tops. At night the serpent came out of its burrow on the Red Horn and started flying above the Zogno basin, holding in its mouth a golden bowl. It came back to the Red Horn after pausing to drink water at the ancient Boer fount, near the Inzogno. The story goes on with the youth of the town who would follow the snake to the fount, chasing it with a pan to try and snap the golden bowl; but invariably at the crucial moment they were petrified.
The snake, which we also find sculptured in a megalithic artefact in the Molinello area, both as a golden ring serpent and as a snake with a brilliant stone, is one of the most represented symbolic elements at Cevo. Because the snake is directly linked to the cults of the Mother Goddess, and considering the Iberian (Basque) origin of the so called Celtic-Ligurian people who first populated Val Camonica, we can’t but find a reference in the ancient religion of the Basque and their main goddess, Mari, representing the earth in the form of a very beautiful woman with blond hair embellished by a golden comb. She was said to live in undergroung caves, and her par is the snake Maju or Sugaar, god of the earth and the sky. At times Mari herself, in her lower part, appears as a snake, in the same way as Ninianae (Viviana, the Lady of the lake of Arthurian memory) or Dahut (a Breton mermaid goddess).[21]
No one fails to notice an assonance with the Camunian Aquane. The Aquane[22] are the quiet and kindly dwellers of charming lands, and they can predict the future and recall the past, though they don’t recognize the present; they belong in the Celtic cult of the waters, and in many legends these water spirits, in the shape of extremely beautiful women, attract humans into the afterlife, getting them to lose their own sense of time.
These water spirits belong in the land of the fairies, the goddess Dana, or the Sidhe, a parallel world whose entrances may be found under hills or near dolmens and springs.

Coran dè la Panéra
To the south of Androla, in the vicinity of Coran dè la Panéra, a rock with various engravings has been discovered and is still being studied, together with a human figure engraved inside a triangle pointing down, found on a nearby rock.
It may be surmised that the first rock represents a plan of the area. The zigzagging signs, forming lozenges, may stand for water flows, and the square crossed by various lines could reasonably indicate a village. Less understandable is the arrangement of numerous cupmarks.
However, some engravings reported by Priuli,[23] such as those he calls “the rock of the Drud and the Sorcerer”, present a possible cultual interpretation of the zigzagging geometric pattern. As a matter of fact, the anthropomorphic figures in the two engravings do wear clothes with a repeated lozenge-shaped pattern.
The lozenge (mâcle, knitting-work), an evident symbol of the Mother Goddess, evokes universal vital strength; the knitwear of the Sumerian Great Net, which extends to the whole universe, is a scheme of the universal vital strength. The agrenon (the “net” in Greek) represents the expansion that occurs at once in all directions. The net is found engraved on omphaloid stones and in the Celtic culture it equates the spiral. The lozenge net is linked to the checker board, on which Lug sits, made up of black and white squares, to indicate the polarity of manifestation.
As regards the anthropomorphic figure inscribed in a triangle pointing downwards, it seems to belong in the Neolithic, according to the typology of Camunian art presented by E. Anati. It could be an “orant” (worshipper) with the particular feature of the triangle pointing down which symbolizes the feminine.
Proceeding on the path we approach the Molinello, where an ancient stone door (the StrØta), now destroyed, introduced to what appears to be a large sacred area, probably used for cultual functions of healing and for astronomic observations.
An old legend marks the spot as a meeting place where ancient rites took place.
“According to an old tale, once upon a time Tesa also yielded corn, but on a full moon night some pretty maids gathered there for their noisy merrymaking and dancing at the light of a big fire, to meet with a man with horns and tail, who presented himself around midnight. The town boys were scared by the cries they heard and the men didn’t know what to do. This happened again every month on the full moon, but one night in November a man went to St. Sisto and started to strike the little bell.
The elated pretty maids suddenly stopped dancing and ran toward the fire, where their lord was awaiting them, but they arrived late, beaten up and wounded all over. The man seeing them in that state didn’t want them any more for himself, changed their feet into goat legs and embalmed them in the Dòsol. After that, every month the St. Sisto bell gets stricken.
No one knows anything about it. The fields of Tesa have become fertile and they yield corn as well.”
The legend, told by Giùanù (Giovan Battista Matti) and reported by Lorenzo Cervelli, is of great interest insofar as, aside from the Christian interpretation, it tells us of ancient rites that took place on full moon nights, with frenzied dances and the intake of intoxicating drinks, around a big fire. The ritual dances, whose frantic rhythm and the intoxicating drinks that went along produced states of altered consciousness, allowed to look beyond our dimension, as still happens today in many shamanic rites, to enter into other worlds… or the other world, the one parallel to ours, the Sidhe, that the Celts believed to be a concrete reality.
Who was the lord? Not an entity, but, as we’d say today, every participant’s super ego, the projection of the tribe’s collective unconscious, or that god said Lug, the luminous, who indeed is represented with horns (or Kernunnos, the sacred deer).
For the Celts this human world is finite, measurable and measured. The other world, the Sidhe, is the immutable present of reality, where “I was” equals “I am” and “I will be”. Meeting with Lug then means acquiring knowledge, which is what the women priests did in the past, though Christianity turned all that into witchery. That’s why the women came out injured (the blows, the wounds), now unable to enter the other dimension and, for this reason, embalmed by the selfsame Lord of knowledge, so that their knowledge wouldn’t be used by the unworthy ones. Embalmed, not suppressed, just like their culture, that no longer belongs in daily life because we can’t grasp it, nonetheless it remains written in the stones, told by legends, living in the symbols.

Il Molinello
Molinello presents itself as a series of overlapping terraces held up by stone walls. Along the walls there are stones positioned so as to give the impression of tombs and dolmens, while others lead to surmising the presence of broken menhirs.
One could presume the existence of a fortified village, but those settlements were usually protected behind by rocks, so as to leave only the part toward the flat area of the valley bottom accessible, still easily defensible.
The terraces are not wide enough to allow for agricultural exploitation. Behind there are no rocks, but plateaus, where the presence of megalithic circles is evident.
Besides, south-west of the possible centre and below, near the buildings currently utilized as stables, there are stones positioned in such a way that we think they might have been targets to determine the alignments between the megalithic circles and the vault of heaven.
Toward the lower section of the stone complex, there is a dolmen of remarkable make.
In this respect what Jean Markale writes is significant: “We know the druids were lone people, like hermits residing in the forests where they celebrated cults shrouded in mystery.
There probably is a survival of the dolmenic religion in all this, that we don’t know but we can verify checking out the number of megalithic monuments, mostly dolmens, in Celtic territories. The hypothesis was brought up that the dolmens were the tombstones of the priests or missionaries, promulgators of that ancient religion, who died in an aura of holiness and were worshipped after their departure. We also know that the myth of the Tuatha Dé Danann living on hillocks dates back to that time.”[24]
Of great interest is also the discovery of what we will call the “Astronomer’s stone”, a few metres away from the target and the stone circles.
The “Astronomer’s stone” reveals itself, after careful observation, as a scheme that the operator could have used to watch the sky. The two cupmarks of biggest diameter (approx. 8 centimetres), if united by a straight line, point to the south-east. This is extremely significant, for in that portion of the sky we find important asterisms such as Orion, the Canis Major, Sirius, the Bull, with Aldebaran, the Pleiades.
The fork departing from the central cupmark was, in ancient times, a tool used to sight the sky to identify the asterisms, the heliacal rises, the motions of the constellations and of single stars. The fork is oriented to the east and ends in the central cupmark, forming with it a vaguely anthropomorphic figure. In the stone four more cupmarks are also highlighted, three of a three-centimetre diameter, one of a one-centimetre diameter. They are placed west of the main cupmark. Let’s imagine now an astronomer of the time, equipped with his fork, pointing towards the central cupmark. If he introduces some sticks into the other cupmarks to the west (south-west and north-west) as targets, he is thus enabled to watch and test out a vast portion of the western sky. If on the other hand he turns his gaze to the east, inserting a stick in the south-east cupmark, he can sight, for instance, the heliacal rise of Aldebaran, Sirius, and Pleiades. These are extremely important star references for the ancient world, as evinced also by extensive literature on the subject, to which we don’t refer now as it is impossible in these brief notes to deal adequately with the topic.
The “Astronomer’s stone” thus turns out to be, in our opinion, a very important find, as it represents an essential reference point for subsequent archaeo-astronomic observations.

The Ferrous Fount and the Snake
North-west of Molinello there is a ferrous fount.
A series of positioned stones, among which some triangular targets have been spotted, indicate a sinusoidal route that links Molinello to the ferrous fount. About half way there is a boulder, obviously carved, whose shape recalls a snake’s head. Under the head the boulder makes a prominent stone step. Considering the survival of legends and feast-days related to the snake, we can’t rule out the idea that the snake-headed boulder may have been an altar, placed half way between the megalithic circle and the ferrous fount, for cultual objects.
The snake’s head, derived from a granite block, faces east and receives the sun light frontally at the equinoxes. The two eyes are grazed tangentially by the sun at the summer solstice. Let us not forget the apotropaic value of the snake and its association, in many cultures, to healing.

Other Finds
Awaiting further studies, we only hint at other finds, such as various writings in north Etruscan and a Solomon’s knot, likely of Roman age, presently set in the dam of Val D’Arno.

The initial phase of the research and the first finds are fruits of the efforts of Domenico Scoppio, Donatella Salvetti, Silvano Danesi, Franca Leonardi and Paolo Maglio.

© Texts edited by Silvano Danesi
© The researches have been carried out by Silvano Danesi, Lorenzo Cervelli and the group “Amici del sentiero etrusco celtico”
© Photographs by Silvano Danesi and Lorenzo Cervelli
Graphic arts by Giuseppe Romano


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